8th July 2001

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Book review

Carving a niche with a distinct contribution

"History of the Colombo Chetties", edited and compiled by Deshabandu Reggie Candappa. Reviewed by Anne Abayasekara

In the mosaic that forms the Sri Lankan na- tion, we are privileged to have - apart from the two major communities of Sinhalese and Tamils - several small ethnic groups who have made their own distinctive contribution to the country.

Most of us are aware of the term "Colombo Chetty" but are rather vague as to who the people are and to whom it applies. Since this community has intermarried with both the Sinhalese and Tamils and since some of them have adopted Portuguese names during the Portuguese period here, there has been some confusion in identifying them.

It was due to representations made to the Government by the Sri Lanka Chetty Association in 1983, and prolonged deliberations held between the Ministry of Home Affairs and a delegation from the Colombo Chetty Association, that the Colombo Chetties received official recognition as a distinct ethnic group on January14, 1984. This was announced in a Govt. circular "which also ensured that thereafter Chetties will be registered as such in all Govt. documents."

I gleaned all this from the excellently produced and informative book, "History of the Colombo Chetties" that was published in December, 2000. Those of us who are comfortably ensconced in the majority communities are often insensitive to - or unaware of - the struggle that small ethnic groups may have in gaining recognition as a separate entity within the larger framework of a nation. Books such as this one give us the opportunity to learn about the traditions, culture and customs that are unique to one particular group of whose identity we may have been in ignorance. As a child growing up in my 'home' village, I heard the term "Hetti" used and thought it applied to Indian traders. Now I gather that the term Chetty is interpreted as Setthi in Pali, Hetti or Situ in Sinhalese, Etti in Tamil and that in all historical records Colombo Chetties are referred to as Setthi or Situ.

The book is lavishly illustrated with interesting photographs, both ancient and modern. The frontispiece of a Colombo Chetty gentleman in traditional garb - peak cornered hat, bangle-like rings on his ears and a silk scarf loosely knotted round his neck - is very impressive. The back cover is adorned with a somewhat amusing (to modern eyes) sketch of a Colombo Chetty shown full-length in flowing attire and pointed slippers and carrying a distinctive kind of parasol, taken from a series of sketches of "The Sir Lankan Law Court Types" executed by Van Dort. Illustrious members of the community and some well-known families - the Chittys, Alleses, Muthukrishnas, Perumals, Vidurampulles and Candappas are featured.

The Editor has also reproduced one of the late E.C.B. Wijeyesinghe's delightful articles in his series "Of Men and Memories", entitled 'The Story of a King'. Written in his own inimitable style, E.C.B. relates the old story that one of the Three Kings who followed the star to the stable in Bethlehem where the Christchild lay, came from the East and that legend has it that he was a Colombo Chetty by the name of Perumal-"not a common or tea-garden Perumal, but an Ayyam Perumal whose offsprings are found in executive suites in many parts of the World."

ECB goes on to say that there have been many claimants to this role among the Chetties, among whom are the Candappas, Anandappas, Aserappas, Rodrigopulles, Casie Chettys, Alleses, Fernandopulles, Brittos, Babapulles, Ondaatjes and Cadiramens. Colombo Chetties weren't confined to the capital city but spread their roots in other parts of the island and for the record there are clear group photographs with captions, of Chetties of Dankotuwa, of Thoppuwa, Welihena and Puttalam.

To pick a few notables at random from the long and impressive list compiled here, there was Dr. Michael Ondaatje (not to be confused with today's famous author of that name who must be one of his descendants). This eminent physician came to Sri Lanka in June 1659 on the recommendation of the Maharajah of Tanjore to attend on the wife of the Dutch Governor Van de Mayden who was stricken with a rare disease that had baffled both Dutch doctors and native ayurvedic physicians. She responded to his treatment and the grateful Governor not only rewarded him with money and jewels, but appointed Dr. Michael Juri Ondaatje the first Doctor of Colombo, the first Colombo Chetty to hold this post. He died in Colombo in 1714.

The late President J.R. Jayawardene's first paternal ancestor was a Colombo Chetty and there is an excerpt from the biography of J.R. authored by Prof. K.M. De Silva & Howard Wriggins, in support of this. Don Adrian Jayawardene, J.R.'s paternal great-grandfather, descended from a Chetty family, but two or three generations earlier, a male of this family had married a Sinhalese by the name of Jayawardene from the village of Walgama near Hanwella and had taken on the name of Jayewardene and by the time Don Adrian arrived on the scene at the tail-end of the 18th century, "the process of 'Sinhalisation' of his family had been completed."

In a community well-known for its Christian (particularly Roman Catholic) links, and for the many priests and nuns it produced, it may be news to some, as it was to me, to learn that the Ven. Soma Thero of Vajirarama Temple, Bambalapitiya, and founder of the German Dharmaduta Society was born Victor Pulle, the son of Colombo Chetty parents. Many illustrious names are mentioned , among them: E.C. Alles, the first Colombo Chetty to obtain the F.R.C.S (England), and one-time President of the Ceylon Medical Association; George Chitty, Q.C., Justice M.F.S. Pulle, Justice Christie Alles, George Candappa, P.C., Chevalier L.A. Perumal, Dr. Christopher Ondaatje, CEB, financier & philanthropist, who has written the foreword to this book; Mano Muthukrishna-Candappa, Managing Director of the Polytechnic and much else besides Abraham Peter Casie Chitty, an outstanding businesman of the early 20th century. This should suffice to show how members of the Chetty community have made their own unique contribution as citizens of Sri Lanka.

The preface to this book contains a quotation from a speech made by Sir Herbert Stanley, KCMG, Governor of Ceylon, when he addressed the students of a college in Colombo in January 1928. I cannot refrain from reproducing it here because it sounds almost tailor-made for us in the tragic position in which we find ourselves today. These are the words that Governor Stanley spoke 73 years ago and they sound prophetic.

"If the communities preserve their own traditions and are prepared to put into the common stock the good which they have inherited from their ancestors, there is every hope that we may build up, here in Ceylon, a happy and united Ceylon; ....... by our common devotion to Ceylon and our common desire to make her a better country for our children, than she has been for our fathers." I say 'Amen' to that.

The world of a Muslim

The intimate workings of any religion are fundamentally quite complex. Therefore in order to understand the beliefs and values of a particular religion, it is first necessary to gain a basic knowledge of it.

"Understanding Islam and the Muslims" informs the reader of the basic tenets of the Islamic religion. It provides an useful overview for someone with minimal understanding of the practices of Islam.

The information has been clearly divided into easily understandable sections. These cover information from "What is Islam?" to answering questions on how Islamic practices are followed today. The brief summaries together with the colourful photographs are informative and illuminating.

As an introduction the origins of the religion are explained with a special focus on how Islam has now spread throughout the world. "Who is Muhammad?" and "How did he become a prophet and a messenger of God?" are two of the key questions that are answered. The booklet describes who Muslims are, what they believe and how to become one.

Going into more depth the booklet examines the framework of Muslim life: the 'Five Pillars' of Islam, as well as the rituals that are carried out. It explains how Muslims always have religion "uppermost in their minds".

Muslims are to make no division between what is secular and what is sacred; therefore religion dominates their everyday life. It is their belief that there is no god worthy of worship except Allah and Muhammad is His messenger. In order to worship, Muslims pray up to five times a day making prayer central to their daily life.

The most important principle of Islam is that "all things belong to God" and therefore "wealth is held by human beings in trust". It is the practice of Muslims to give "voluntary charity" - charity is a necessity for every Muslim.

The booklet concludes by putting the Islamic religion into a wider perspective. It demonstrates Islam's function in society today given its views on marriage, human rights, racism and war. The theories and opinions expressed are all supported by extracts from the Quran, the prime source of every Muslim's faith and practice. This booklet which is distributed free of charge was prepared by The Embassy of the Saudi Arabia Department of Islamic Affairs in order to give an insight into how over one billion people across the globe live their lives.

-Jodie Jenkins

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